To dream that you have a voice mail symbolizes some important advice that you may have overlooked, but need to heed. Pay attention to the message and how it applies to your waking life.
To dream of ear studs represents a wish to be recognized as exceptional. You or someone else that wants to be viewed as being "special" or more interesting than someone else.
In a dream, the human voice represents one’s reputation or fame, and its strength or weakness reflects one’s state of mind or the condition of his health. Raising one’s voice in a dream means unjustly presiding over a crowd of people. Hearing a human voice in a dream means chairing an important responsibility. If the human voice emanates from an animal in the dream, it denotes great benefits and particularly if the animal speaks pleasing and soothing words or words of truth. If one raises his voice above the voice of a man of knowledge, a shaikh or a teacher in a dream, it means that he will commit a sin. A weak voice in a dream represents a man. Intentionally lowering one’s voice in a dream means being indebted to someone, or it could mean humility. If a man of authority or a policeman lower his voice in a dream, it means that he maybe dismissed from his job, or he maybe reprimanded or disciplined for his misconduct. The sound produced by the ringing of coins in a dream represents temptation, allurement, or a fight between stockbrokers or money exchangers. The clank of money in a dream also means either good or bad news, or it could mean hearing good words, a wise speech, or words one likes to hear more about, if they are given as a sign of friendship or as a dower. If the clanking of money is made in jest in the dream, then it represents a fight one does not wish to end. The sound of a hornet represents a person who defames or discredits others, or whose evil cannot be removed without acquiring the help of a like person. The bleating of a ewe in a dream means kindness shown by one’s mistress, his wife, or by a gracious man. The bleating of a billy goat or a ram in a dream means happiness and prosperity. The neighing of horses in a dream means receiving guidance from a noble person, or it could represent a courageous soldier. The braying of a donkey in a dream means hideousness, or the ugly character of a despicable enemy. The braying of a mule in a dream means a hardship which is combined with a difficult person, or it could mean vain talk, or indulgingin suspicious acts. The mooing of a calf, a cow, or a steer in a dream means a riot. The gurgling of a camel in a dream represents a blessed journey, a pilgrimage, a successful business trip, or toiling and hardships. The roaring of a lion in a dream represents alarm, esteem, fear, or being threatened by someone in authority. In general, the sound of animals in a dream connotes adversities or fear. The neighing of horses in a dream means an invasion or might. The harking of dogs in a dream means vain talk, interference in others’ business, regret, intending to harm others, hostility toward others, or dissonance. The blaring of a leopard in a dream means coquetry, vanity and wantonness. The blaring of a lynx in a dream means a false promise from an unsteady, oft-hesitant, or a greedy person and taking advantage of him. The cooing of pigeons in a dream means lamenting, or having marital intercourse. The chirp of swifts in a dream means good words or an admonition from a wise person. The croakingof frogs in a dream represents the ringing of bells, feeling overjoyed, employment for a teacher, rising to leadership, or it could mean hearing harsh words. The hissing of a snake in a dream means a warning or a fight with someone who hides his enmity. The braying of a donkey in a dream means cursing one’s adversaries. The roaring of a lion in a dream means threats or boasts. The yowling of a tomcat in a dream means uproar, backbiting, defamation and insinuations. The squeak of a mouse in a dream means profits, reunion, love and peace, or it could mean harm one could suffer because of an interfering person or a robber. The crying of a female gazelle in a dream means longing for one’s homeland. The yapping of foxes in a dream means a warning to escape, to move from one field into another, or it could mean suffering from jealousy, perfidy or lies. The howling of a wolf in a dream means a robbery, or fear of a brutal thief. The barking of a jackal in a dream means a mission of good intent, a forthcoming evil, women’s cries for help, or the cry of people who ab andoned all hope . The sound of a pig in a dream means taking advantage of a stupid enemy and stripping him of his money. The sound of an ostrich in a dream means hiring a trustworthy and a courageous servant, or bringing a new employee into one’s business. Most dream interpreters dislike to interpret the meaning of the sound of peacocks or chicken and note that they mostly mean sorrow and distress, while others interpret the cawing of crows to mean separation or announcing someone’s death. However, in dream, any ugly or coarse sound represents sorrow and distress while any pleasant sound in a dream represents happiness and joy.
Dreaming of hearing voices, denotes pleasant reconciliations, if they are calm and pleasing | high-pitched and angry voices, signify disappointments and unfavorable situations. To hear weeping voices, shows that sudden anger will cause you to inflict injury upon a friend. If you hear the voice of God, you will make a noble effort to rise higher in unselfish and honorable principles, and will justly hold the admiration of high-minded people. For a mother to hear the voice of her child, is a sign of approaching misery, perplexity and grievous doubts. To hear the voice of distress, or a warning one calling to you, implies your own serious misfortune or that of some one close to you. If the voice is recognized, it is often ominous of accident or illness, which may eliminate death or loss.
One’s ear in a dream represents his hearing, the point of his awareness, his rank, child, property or his status. The ear in a dream also represents knowledge, reason, religion, extent of one’s wealth, or pride about one’s lineage. If one’s hearing becomes clearer or increases in sensibility, or if he sees light beaming from his ears or driving into them in a dream, this dream will represent his guidance, obedience to his Lord and consent to His command. If he sees his ears looking smaller or producing an offensive odor in a dream, it means that he may go astray and indulge in actions that will incur God’s displeasure. If one discovers that he has an extra ear in a dream, it means a permission is given to him to fulfill what he intends. The number of ears one sees in a dream also represent the different arts and sciences, but they could also mean that the person in question has no stability. In a dream, one’s ear may represent the jewelry a woman attaches to herself as ornaments. To clog one’s ears with one’s own fingers in a dream means death in a repugnant state of innovation. Plugging one’s own ears in a dream also means ignoring a repulsive thought. Plugging one’s ears in a dream also could mean becoming an advisor to someone or a caller to prayers in a mosque, i.e., a muezzin. If one’s ears are transformed into an animal’s ears in a dream, it means losing respect or developing inertness or apathy. As one’s awareness, one’s ear in a dream represents a pouch, a wallet, a coffer or a safe. Ears in a dream are also interpreted to mean separation from one’s wife or daughter. If only half of one’s ear is there in the dream, it means the death of his wife. If one finds himself deaf in his dream, it means that he may lose his faith. Having large ears in a dream means shunning or avoiding what is true. If one sees as though his ears have eyes in the dream, it means that he may lose his sight. If one sees himself eating the accumulated wax of his ears in the dream, it means that he is a child molester. If one sees grass growing all over him but does not cover his ears or eyes in the dream, it means prosperity.
Dreaming that you have a bass voice, denotes you will detect some discrepancy in your business, brought about by the deceit of some one in your employ. For the lover, this foretells estrangements and quarrels.
To see an answering machine in your dream suggests that you are not listening to a message that someone around you is trying to convey. Perhaps you are experiencing difficulties and frustration in understanding some idea or viewpoint.
To dream of an answering machine represents ideas, insights, advice, or clear instructions that were given to you when you weren't listening to it. "Nobody was home" when something important was said. Feeling that you didn't listen to someone enough when it was important.
Negatively, to dream of an answering machine represents ideas, insights, or advice that you aren't listening to. You've "gotten the message", but aren't doing anything about it. You may have difficulties or frustration in understanding an idea or viewpoint. Something isn't "hitting home" as quickly as it should be. Willfully ignoring advice in the present because you have more important things to do. Preferring to enjoy yourself not having to be concerned a problem until it becomes a big problem.
Example: A man dreamed of his father leaving a message on his answering machine. In real life he was experiencing a moral dilemma with consequences that he was well aware of. His father on the answering machine represented the decision to do the right thing (conscience) being willfully ignored until he was ready to listen to it.
Example 2: A man dreamed of hearing a badly garbled message on an answering machine from his father. In waking life his father had died and he couldn't remember what his father had told him to do about certain property issues after is death.
If you dream of seeing an answering machine it means that you do not pay attention to someone who is trying to say something important to you. Maybe there is something for you hard to understand
To dream that you or someone is wearing earrings suggests that you need to listen more carefully and pay attention to a message that someone is conveying to you. In particular, to see or wear pearl earrings in your dream indicates that are being given some wise advice you should follow. Alternatively, pearl earrings may serve as a memory of a person in your life who wore them.
To see broken earrings in your dreams suggests that someone is talking about you.
To dream that you are buying earrings represents your desire for acceptance and affection.
To dream that you lose an earring indicates that you are being misguided.
To dream of earrings represents a quality in ourselves that we want others to admire or respect. It may be a sign that you or someone else craves attention or wants to be recognized. Enjoying hearing people talking about you.
To dream of taking your earrings off represents feelings of not wanting attention or to be noticed for something special anymore. Preferring to not be talked about anymore.
To dream of crystal earring represents an incorruptible quality in yourself that you want others to notice in you.
To dream of silver earrings represents life or good luck continually allowing to be noticed for something you like about yourself. It may also reflect your preoccupation with finding ways to be noticed or recognized.
Example: A young woman dreamed of wearing earrings. In waking life he was very interested in getting attention from a guy she liked.
Example 2: A woman dreamed putting an earring in her boyfriends eye and it started to make his eye bleed. In waking life she wanted to feel good noticing her boyfriend making smart decisions and it made her feel bad that he was continuing to ignore her advice.
In a dream, woman’s earrings or necklace if they are made of pearls, they represent a gift from her husband. If they are made of silver in the dream, they mean a physical ailment, and if they are made from beads in the dream, they mean being let down by one’s friends. Seeing one’s wife wearing earrings in a dream means engaging in a profitable business. If a man sees himself wearing a pair of beautiful earrings which are mounted with pearls in a dream, it means that he will enjoy wealth, prosperity and comfort in this life, or it could mean that he will memorize the Holy Qur’an. If a woman sees herself wearing a pair of silver earrings in a dream, it means that she will conceive a son who will grow to be a pious man. If they are made from pearls, then her future son will sing with music. As for an unmarried woman, wearing a pair of earrings in a dream means marriage. If one sees a child wearing a pair of earrings in a dream, it represents beauty, though it is not praiseworthy if an adult or a man is seen in a dream wearing a pair of earrings or even a single earring. In their case, it means engaging in a loathsome and disgraceful action. Wearing a pair of earrings in a dream also means acquiring a knowledge that exalts the person and raises him in station. It also could mean having musical inclinations, or having a picnic.
To see earrings in dreams, omens good news and interesting work is before you. To see them broken, indicates that gossip of a low order will be directed against you.
To dream that you have excessive earwax suggests that there is something you are refusing to hear.
To dream of earwax represents your disgust or embarrassment that something negative you've heard about yourself is true. Feeling bad noticing that you have to fix something unpleasant about yourself. Saying to yourself "I can't believe that's what my problem is."
Positively, earwax may reflect your fascination or discovery that there is a significant way to improve yourself because in naivity or ignorance didn't know what you were doing
If one sees himself cleaning the yellowish waxlike secretion found in the canal of his external ear, or if he is cleaning it from someone else’s ears in a dream, it means that he will acquire a needed antidote or poison or become free from the plot of envious people. If one cleanse his ears from earwax or from other dirt in a dream, it means that he will hear good and pleasing news. If one sees himself eating the earwax he extracts from his own ears in a dream, it means that he is a child molester. Cleaning the wax of one’s ears in a dream also means hearing pleasing news.
In a dream, the head and the brain represent man’s controller, strength, benefits, longevity, wisdom or power. One’s ears in a dream represent his wife, daughter, sister or aunt. The eyes represent one’s faith, religion or children. The right eye represents his son and the left eye represents his daughter. The forehead in a dream represents one’s beauty, son, power, honor, wealth, leadership or the point of prostration in one’s prayers. A wide forehead in a dream means prosperity, while a narrow forehead means tightness. The eyebrows represent one’s protection or spiritual guardianship. As for the human nose in a dream, it represents honor, longevity and respect. Whatever comes out of one’s nose in a dream is good and whatever goes into it in a dream may not be beneficial. A bleeding nose in a dream means receiving or giving money. If one’s nose is cut off in a dream, it means circumcision, falling in rank, or it could mean his death. Inhaling water and clearing one’s nose in a dream represents someone who deceives his wife. If a bird or an animal comes out of one’s nose in a dream, it means that a cattle, a pet, or a domesticated animal will give birth to its babies in such a house. A large nose in a dream represents honor and respect. Smelling a nice fragrance in a dream means begetting a son, or it could mean relief from difficulties. One’s face in a dream represents his happiness or his sorrow. Seeing the forehead and the face in a dream means money, honor and a beautiful woman. The earlock and the temples represent two noble and blessed daugh- ters. A bright face in a dream means glad tidings, while a yellowish face in a dream means bad news or miseries. Frowning in a dream means a misfortune. If a woman sees herself frowning in a dream, it means the death of her husband. The two lips in a dream represent one’s helpers. The lower lip is stronger in meaning than the upper lip. It is also said that lips in a dream represent one’s relatives. The upper lip represents the male relatives and the lower lip represents the female relatives. Sealed lips in a dream mean difficulties or adversities. The mouth in a dream represents a key, one’s livelihood, the conclusion of one’s life, death, illness, strength, a coffer, a marketplace, a door attendant, a chief minister, or a door. If one’s mouth is sealed in a dream, it means a scandal. One’s tongue in a dream represents his or her translator. A long tongued person in a dream may mean winning an argument, or it could mean innocence from allegation. An elongated tongue of a judge in a dream means clarity and justice. A tied-up tongue in a dream means poverty, sickness, depression, a calamity, or it could represent an unworthy person. Having two tongues in a dream means praiseworthiness and acquiring two types of knowledge. Seeing what is inside one’s mouth in a dream means exposing one’s ills. Biting on one’s tongue in a dream means regret. Watching one’s tongue in a dream means protecting oneself from pitfalls. Carrying one’s tongue by hand in a dream means receiving indemnity for bodily injury or receiving blood money. If one sees his throat blocked in such a way that he could not speak in a dream, it denotes his stinginess toward his own family. If one sees one of his limbs speaking against him in a dream, it means that someone will report him to the authorities or become a witness against him in court. If one sees himself in a dream riding over the shoulders of his enemy, it means that he will commit a wrongdoing or a shameful act. If there is no enmity between them, and if he sees himself riding over the shoulders of a friend in a dream, it means earning something from him. Carrying something over one’s shoulders in a dream means debts. If one sees himself carrying a hypocrite over his shoulders in a dream, it means that he may work in a lumberyard or carry wood to earn a living. One’s shoulders in a dream also represent his parents, brothers, partners, station, or beauty. Anything that affects them in a dream will manifest in any of the above. In a dream, one’s neck represents an embrace, a donation with terms, a legal will, or a conditional endowment. The neck and the shoulders in a dream represent one’s trust or trustworthiness. A healthy and strong neck in a dream means trustworthiness and ability to meet one’s obligations. Wounds, festering or purulence in one’s neck in a dream mean betraying God’s trust. If one sees a nice bird sitting over his neck in a dream it means benefits or an alibi. If it is not a gentle bird, then it becomes a bad omen, or a rebuke. If one sees a necklace, a rope, a wire, or a thread around his neck in a dream, it means fulfilling one’s promise, acquiring knowledge and honor. A long neck in a dream could mean four things, that is justice, leadership, attainment of one’s goals or calling people to prayers. The left hand represents one’s helper, friend, savings, or a compassionate relative. Longhands in a dream represent a charitable person, or a capable one, and short hands mean the opposite. Long hands also could mean longevity, wealth, helpers, borrowing money, governing, fulfilling one’s commands, profits from one’s business or having business sense. If one’s hand is cut off in a dream, it means the death of his brother, his father, his partner, or a close friend or his assistant. If the right hand is cut off in a dream, it means a vow one takes to deprive someone from his rights. It also means loss of one’s job or cuttingoff one’s blood ties, or it could mean that he has committed a theft. If a righteous person sees his hand cut off in a dream, it means abstaining from wrongdoing or eschewing evil. If one’s left hand is cut off in a dream, it means reestablishing his relationship with his family and rediscovering the benefits of good qualities. If one’s hand is broken in a dream, it means an adversity, illness, loss of business, or loss of a dear person. The cracking skin of one’s hands in a dream means loss of wealth. Stretched hands in a dream means ill caused by a close friend. Stretching one’s hands in a dream also could mean generosity. If one’s hands are cut off without causing him any pain in a dream, it means that he may fall in love. If one sees his hands joined together in a dream, it means haviiig a family reunion, or a wedding. If one’s hands are trembling in a dream, it means weakness, illness, old age or longevity. If one’s hands feel dry in a dream, | it means that such a person does little good in his life. If one enters his hand under his arm’s pit in a dream, then brings it out bright and radiant in a dream, it means that he will acquire knowledge and may develop wisdom. Otherwise, it could mean profits. If he brings forth his hand from under his arm’s pit in the dream, and if it reveal a flame in his dream, it represents a manifestation of divine power and a blessed victory. If one pulls his hand from under his arm’s pit and it brings forth water in the dream, it means that he will receive great benefits and growth in his life, or perhaps that a long awaited traveller will shortly arrive to his doorsteps. If a right-handed person sees himself being left- handed in a dream, it means hardships. If one sees himself walking with his hands in a dream, it represents his dependence on a relative to provide for his needs. If one’s hands say something nice to him in a dream, it means financial comfort. If one’s hand is cut-off in a dream as punishment for a sin, it could mean marriage, a bad wife, or lack of trustworthiness. If one washes his hands with soap in a dream, it means that he will abandon something he initiated, or that his intention will not be fulfilled. If a form of life or a good spirit comes out from one’s hands in a dream, it indicates benefits. If such a life is a malignant one, then it means the opposite. If one takes someone by the hand in a dream, it means that he will help him and save his life. If something sprouts in one’s hands or if one’s hands turn into iron, or a vegetable in a dream, it means negative repercussions in wakefulness. Hands in a dream are interpreted in twelve ways – that is a brother, a sister, a partner, a son, a compassionate friend, one’s strength, wealth, leadership, money, proof, a craft, or work. The condition in which the palm of one’s hand looks in a dream indicates the state of one’s health and fitness. Clapping one’s hands in a dream could either mean joy and happiness, or it could mean nothing. Wearing a glove in one’s hand in a dream means ceasing the course of wrongdoing. Slapping one’s own face with both hands means sorrow, sadness or calamities. Hitting the back of one’s hand into the palm of the other hand in a dream means separation. In a dream, the fingers of the right hand represent the daily five time prayers. The thumb represents the pre-dawn prayer, the index represents the midday prayer, the middle finger represents the mid-afternoon prayer, the ring finger represents the sunset prayer, and the little finger represents the evening prayer. As for the fingers of the left hand in a dream, they are interpreted to represent one’s nephews. To cross or intertwine one’s fingers in a dream means difficulties and poverty. One’s toes in a dream represent the beauty of his character and denote his straight- forwardness. Any defect or crookedness in them in a dream will mirror in wakefulness. If a toe or a finger is bitten or crushed in a dream, it denotes evil or perhaps an accident. If one sees milk coming forth from his thumb and blood coming forth from his index finger in a dream, it means that he will marry a mother, then will he marry her daughter, or it could mean that he will rape the mother, then her daughter. Cracking one’s fingers in a dream means exchanging bad words between relatives or being sarcastic or making fun of other people. If one’s fingers are paralyzed in a dream, it means that he has committed an awful sin. If one sees his right hand paralyzed in a dream, it means injustice toward a weak person or inflicting losses upon an innocent person. If one’s left hand is paralyzed in a dream, it means the death of his brother or sister. As for the fingernails in a dream, they denote beauty, courage, strength, a religious covenant, or money. If one’s fingernails are chipped, extracted, or broken in a dream, they means loss of money and strength. If they look nicely clipped in a dream, they mean both spiritual and material benefits. Long nails at the point of a near breaking in a dream mean distress, sorrow, fears and depression. If one’s nail becomes a claw in a dream, it means rising against one’s enemy and opposition. If one does not have fingernails in a dream, it means bankruptcy. If one’s fingernails turn yellow, green or blue or if they are broken in the dream, it means death. Clipping them in a dream means dispelling calamities or distress. If a thorn or a chip of wooden enters under one’s fingernails in a dream, it means loss of power or money. If one sees himself in a dream knocking his fingernails against his teeth in a dream, it means committing a despicable and a loathsome act. As for seeing one’s chest in a dream, if one sees himself having a broad and a nice looking chest (See Chest), it means repentance of a sinner, or being eager and willing to follow the truth and to comply with it, or to make easy what was earlier difficult. One’s breasts in a dream (See Breast) represent his daughter. Man’s breast in a dream means a woman, and woman’s breasts in a dream represents a man. Breasts in a dream mean five things – a little boy, a little girl, a servant, a friend, or a brother. One’s abdomen in a dream means money, children, relatives or prosperity. If one sees his abdomen being cut open and washed, then stitched back to normal in the dream, it means blessings from God Almighty, forgiveness for one’s sins, and it could mean that one will receive spiritual guidance. One’s abdomen in a dream also denotes his good conduct, amiable character, blessed enterprises and protection from the evil of the accursed Satan. If one sees a newborn son or daughter coming out of his abdomen in a dream, it means that such a child will be born and will grow to govern that household. As for one’s livers in a dream, they represent knowl- edge, money or children. If a man of knowledge sees his livers flying away from his body like birds in a dream, it means that he will forget his knowledge, or if one has children, they may die, or perhaps the government may seize his property even if he has nothing. If one sees himself eating his own livers in a dream, it means earning his livelihood. If they are cooked in the dream, then they represent a lawful income, or they could mean gobbling the property of one’s own children. If a liver is removed in a dream, it means the death of a child. Removing a liver in a dream also could mean injustice. One’s kidney in a dream means having a good business connection, dispelling adversities, distress, trouble, safety from danger, a husband and a wife, one’s parents, or it could represent two lovers. One’s kidneys in a dream also represent a strong, courageous and a hard working man who serves someone in authority, or he may become a personal guard, or an assistant to the governor. As for one’s lungs in a dream, they represent joy, happiness, or sorrow. Donating a lung to someone known or unknown in a dream means receiving happiness in return. Eating a broiled lung of a domesticated animal in a dream means profits. Otherwise, it could mean acquiring unlawful money. Seeing one’s lung torn in a dream means nearing one’s death. One’s spleen in a dream (See Spleen) represents money. As for seeing one’s intestines in a dream, they represent earnings, leadership, a child, unlawful money, intercession, hatred, livelihood, work or they could mean changing one’s mind about doing something which could cause a disaster. One’s stomach in a dream represents longevity, livelihood or children. A healthy stomach in a dream means enjoying strength and a long life. The same interpretation is given to the intestines or the umbilicus or the navel and the three of them represent one’s relationship with his wife. As for the ribs (See Ribs) in a dream, they represent women. The loins or the spinal column in a dream represent one’s progeny. One’s back in a dream (See Back) represents his strength, wealth, glory, fame, master, destruction, end, poverty, old age and burdens. If one sees himself carrying a heavy load in a dream, it means that he is carrying his sins. If he carries merchandise in the dream, it means debt. If he carries woods in the dream, it means backbiting others. If one sees himself carrying a dead person on his back in a dream, it means that he takes care of orphans. As for one’s heart (See Heart) in a dream, it means intelligence, vigilance, aware- ness, guidance, clarity and piety. One’s buttocks and the rear end in a dream represent his earnings, job and profits. If one sees himself licking someone’s rear end or buttocks in the dream, it means giving high praises to an unworthy and an impious person or commending him. The male and female sexual organs in a dream represent a good father or one’s profession. What comes or goes into the male organ or woman’s vagina in a dream of good or bad will reflect in their lives. Seeing one’s penis in a dream means children, money, pride, state, or authority. The testicles represent one’s livelihood, one’s daughters, protection and maintenance. The meaning of the penis and the testicles may be transposed in the dream interpretation. One’s anus in a dream means a pouch, a store, a resting place, or a coffer. The knee represents one’s capital or one’s attendance to his work and earning his livelihood. As for the legs, they too represent one’s capital, paying attention to one’s work and conduct. Man’s leg represents a woman, and a woman’s leg represents a man. If one’s leg turns into wood or iron in a dream, it means that he will fail to earn his livelihood. One’s feet represent his parents, his livelihood, a journey or his wealth. (See Feet | Foot). If one foot is broken or cut off in a dream, it means either the death of a parent or loss of half of one’s capital. If one’s feet turn into iron or copper in a dream, it means longevity. If they turn into glass in the dream, they denote his short life. The human bones represent his livelihood, religion, glory or money. Collecting bones in a dream means saving money. The bone marrow in a dream repre- sents hidden money, good awareness, patience and gratitude. The veins and nerves in a dream represent one’s clan, modesty and progeny. As for seeing the human skin in a dream, it means ornaments, presiding over others, a veil, blessings, livelihood, provisions, life and a garment.
Hearing the voice of an invisible caller admonishing, commanding, forbidding, blessing, or reprimanding the person seeing the dream means exactly what one has heard and has no further interpretations. This includes all voices.